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  • Director, Penn State Institute of the Neurosciences
    University Distinguished Professor and Chair, Department of Neurosurgery
    Professor, Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics
    Department of Neurosurgery

    "Issues in Neurosurgical Clinical Research"

    Please note Dr. Harbaugh does not expect the RUNN Registrants to purchase this
    book. But, he has found the book to be a valuable resource and has listed as a

    Designing Clinical Research: An Epidemiological Approach
    by Hulley, Cummings, Browner, Grady & Newman
    3rd Edition, 2006, 384pp
    Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins

    ISBN-10: 0781782104
    ISBN-13: 9780781782104

    1. Comparison of Evidence of Treatment Effects in Randomized and Nonrandomized Studies

    2. Can the Learning Health Care System Be Educated With Observational Data?
      JAMA July 9, 2014 Volume 312, Number 2

    3. Estimation of average treatment effects based on propensity scores
      The Stata Journal (2002) 2, Number 4, pp. 358–377

    4. An Introduction to Propensity Score Methods for Reducing the Effects of Confounding in Observational Studies
      Multivariate Behavioral Research, 46:399–424, 2011
      Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
      ISSN: 0027-3171 print/1532-7906 online
      DOI: 10.1080/00273171.2011.568786

    5. Understanding Propensity Scores
      Reflections, Elaborations, and Discussions with Readers

    6. Demystify Statistical Significance—Time to Move on From the P Value to Bayesian Analysis
      DOI: 10.1093/jnci/djq493 © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Advance Access publication on December 3, 2010

    7. Benson K, Hartz AJ. A comparison of observational and randomized controlled trials. N
      Engl J Med. 2000;342:1878–1886.

    8. Britton A, McKee M, Black N, McPherson K, Sanderson C, Bain C. Choosing between
      randomised and non-randomised studies: a systematic review. Health Technol Assess

    9. Concato J, Shah N, Horwitz RI. Randomized, controlled trials, observational studies and
      the hierarchy of research designs. N Engl J Med. 2000;342:1887–1892.
      Pocock SJ, Elbourne DR. Randomized trials or observational tribulations? N Engl J Med.

    10. Kunz R, Oxman AD. The unpredictability paradox: review of empirical comparisons of
      randomised and non-randomised clinical trials. BMJ. 1998;317:1185–1190.

    11. Sackett DI, Rosenberg WMC, Gray JAM, Haynes RB, Richardson WS. Evidence based
      medicine: what it is and what it isn't. BMJ. 1996;312:71–72.